LE TEXTE EXPOSITIF PDF

charge enonciative dans trois genres de texts expositifs” (“The Processes of. Enunciation in Three Types of Expository Text”) (Itziar Plazaola. Le texte expositif, quant à lui, est une production dans laquelle les locuteurs créent une structure thématique (Boscolo, ; Britton, ) et fait appel à des . Les titres et intertitres sont des dispositifs de signalisation fréquemment utilisés dans les textes expositifs. De nombreuses recherches réalisées en psychologie.

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Contemporary Educational Psychology 33 4: Applied Ergonomics 39 2: For example, parallel versions of headings and preview sentences may be constructed.

In the absence of such a heading, the reader must produce the generalization or comprehension will suffer. Reading Research Quarterly 22 3: Sur la fonction discursive des titres.

The nature and extent of the effect on processing of manipulating headings in this way almost surely depends on exactly what information is lost when the exxpositif are omitted. The investigation of the topic identification function associated to titles and headings could be supported by a technique such as Latent Semantic Analysis e.

In the next section, we summarize a general theory of text signals that addresses these goals. Definitions Pretraining and Signaling. However, previous studies have typically compared a headings condition to a no headings control condition. Titles and headings are commonly used signaling devices in expository texts. A comparison of a text with vs. As one important type of signaling device, headings are addressed within the SARA framework.

Headings may explicitly communicate the sequential organization of the sections of a text; in fact, headings sometimes consist solely of numbers at the start of each new text section e. Further, SARA offers a systematic analysis of the dimensions on which signals, including headings, vary and it offers hypotheses about how such variation may influence cognitive processing.

Second, linguistic corpus studies aiming at identifying the variability of text signaling devices may help psychologists to select comparisons that nicely reflect how writers effectively use text signaling. It is likely that text processing is different under these circumstances than under conditions where headings are redundant with specific text content.

When the research on headings is combined with similar research on the effects of other structure-emphasizing signaling devices e.

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The inclusion of headings, for instance, can support readers by identifying major topics and ideas, by emphasizing the structure of the text, and by serving as labels that can support access to sections within the text Waller, Two lines of research on the topic can be identified.

Shortcomings of previous research 7 Despite the useful findings of prior psychological research, there are several shortcomings of the research literature that originate in an inadequate analysis of headings as an object of study.

In short, the types of variation we have noted are very relevant to text design, but we have not yet designed research to answer these questions. A Review of the Research.

Thus, important questions for future research are to more thoroughly develop the constructs of relevance and accessibility and examine their influence on signaling effects. Based on this approach to understanding the purposes of signaling devices, SARA proposes that signals may be analyzed along four dimensions:.

We briefly present a general theory of signaling devices that provides such an analysis and we summarize some recent cognitive research demonstrating the validity and utility of the analysis.

Journal of Educational Psychology espositif 2: It approaches this task by building on the notion of metalanguage Harris, and and key concepts taken from Speech Rxpositif Theory Expoitif, ; Grice, ; Searle, and Ho-Dac, Jacques and Rebeyrolle approach this plurality of functional dimensions in texts by referring to the three metafunctions which, in systemic functional linguistics, organize language resources Halliday, Memory and Cognition 28 6: Many studies fail to provide information about the visual properties of teste stimuli.

Thus, the validity of the information of topic identification is supported by this result. Educational Psychologist 43 1: In the case of titles, the labeled text object is an entire text; in the case of headings, the labeled text object is a text part e. Effects of Headings on Text Recall and Summarization. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Signalling Text Organisation. The question of task relevance is an entirely reader-based consideration: Discourse Processes 15 3: The texxte strategy followed in this research was to construct texts with epositif themes and manipulate the title of the text to emphasize one of the two themes, then observe the effects on free recall.

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Signaling as a Cognitive Guide in Multimedia Learning. This propositional topic can take the form of a verbal noun, nominalization, infinitive clause or even a clause with a finite verb, and there is no direct repetition in the text, but rather topical development making use of different —though thematically related— expressions.

For each experiment, the logic was the same. In addition, they remember the signaled content expoaitif. In this paper, we briefly review the relevant findings, then we provide a critique of the research literature, arguing that our understanding of how headings influence text processing would benefit from a linguistically-based analysis of headings. Contemporary Educational Psychology 26 3: To take one simple example, consider an experiment in which memory for a text is compared for a version of the text that contains topic-identifying headings and a control version of the text that omits the headings and the white space inserted to set off the headings from the body of the text.

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The two types of headings served the functions of demarcating and labeling text sections and providing information about the linear structure of the text; they differed only with respect to texfe they identified topics. Contemporary Educational Psychology 32 3: An expository text of any length typically has a complex structure that poses substantial challenges to readers. What types of information should be included in the headings e.

Looking more closely, it is clear that in each example the headings work together as a set, and that different kinds expositit relations apply between the members of the sets. This list effect may be made more or less explicit in the wording of the heading: SARA hypothesizes that any signaling device serves one or more of seven distinguishable information functions: They were timed to locate the specific sentences in texts that had topic-identifying headings or texts that had headings that did not identify topics.

Journal of Applied Psychology 59 3: Let us contrast two texts.